James Gillingham ((1839-1924)) ran an ordinary shoemaking business in Chard, England. In 1866, he met a man who had lost an arm in a cannon mishap and had been told by doctors that there was nothing to be done about it. Eager to put his craftsmanship to test, Gillingham offered to make the man a new arm for free.
Using a secret process wherein he molded leather to the client's limb before hardening it, Gillingham started a business making prostheses. He photographed many of his patients, and published the photos in medical journals to advise surgeons on the best amputation methods.
(via Everlasting Blort)